iCar 101 PoP
iCar 101 PoP is a flying car with centrifugally deployable and retractable spinning wings.
- Number of passengers: 2 - Range: 900 to 1200 km 560 to 745 miles - Maximum flying speed: 280 km/h 174 mph - Maximum driving speed: 180 km/h 112 mph - Cruising altitude: 3350 metres 11000 ft - Length: 5.2 metres 17 ft - Width (driving mode): 1.8 metres 6 ft - Wingspan (flying mode): 5.2 metres 17 ft
iCar 101 PoP has two motorized wings spinning at a rotation speed between 3000 rpm and 6000 rpm.
These spinning wings are composed of a rigid axis surrounded by a flexible envelope made of high strength textile (Zylon). The flexible envelope is deployed by the centrifugal force generated by its rotation.
The rotation speed of each wing is set independently thanks to a controlled differential. As the lift generated by each wing depends on its rotation speed, the controlled differential makes it possible to pilot the roll angle of the aircraft.
- Spinning wings specific features
- - Wings suspension
- Thanks to their compactness, it has been possible to connect the spinning wings to a suspension system.
- The wings suspension system improves the comfort of the aircraft when flying in turbulent weather.
- - Lift control
- By changing the rotation speed of the spinning wings, the lift generated by the wings is easily controlled.
- A landing assistance system takes advantage of this specific capability.
- - Reaction torque
- Thanks to the reaction torque induced by the spinning wings, the centre of gravity of the flying car is located in a central position. This contributes to a better stability of the flying car in driving mode.
- Magnus effect optimization
In order to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio of a spinning wing, the peripheral speed at the surface of the cylinder must be higher than twice the speed of the aircraft.
The diameter of iCar 101 PoP cylindrical wings being 50 cm, the peripheral speed at 6000 rpm is 565 km/h.
This maximum peripheral speed partially explains why the flying speed of iCar 101 PoP is limited to 280 km/h.
- Magnus effect lift calculation
The standard lift equation applies to Magnus effect wings.
Lift = 0.5 x (air density) x (aircraft speed)² x (wings projected surface) x (Magnus effect lift coefficient).
- - Air density = 1.1 kg/m³
- - Aircraft take-off speed = 160 km/h = 45 m/s
- - Projected surface of both wings = ( 2 x 0.5 m x 2 m ) = 2 m²
- - Magnus effect lift coefficient = 4
Lift = 0.5 x 1.1 x (45 x 45) x 2 x 4 = 8910 Newton = 9.81 m/s² x 908 kg
The force generated by the spinning wings easily lifts a 850 kg fully loaded iCar 101 PoP aeromobile.
Further information about Magnus effect lift coefficients can be found in "A review of the Magnus effect in aeronautics" published in "Progress in Aerospace Sciences", Volume 55.